Re-Evaluating the Pandemic Preparedness And REsponse agenda (REPPARE)


Public health serves a vital role in strengthening population resilience to threats to well-being and in responding to such threats when they occur. This requires a holistic approach that recognizes both the interconnection between humans and their environment, and the broad scope of “health” – internationally defined as spanning “physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity”.

Dealing with pandemics and other health emergencies is an important aspect of public health. Interventions must be weighed against potential direct and indirect benefits, the probability that an intervention can be realized, and the direct and indirect costs that will be accrued. Such costs and benefits must include social and mental impacts, assessed within an ethical framework that respects human rights. Human populations are diverse in terms of risk, whilst priorities are influenced by cultural, religious and social factors, as well as competing priorities arising from other diseases. This requires careful policy development and an implementation approach that responds to public need and is consistent with the will of the community.

We recognize the need for publicly available evidence to support a measured approach to pandemic preparedness that is independent and methodologically robust. The REPPARE project will contribute using a team of experienced researchers to examine and collate evidence, and develop assessments of current and proposed policies weighed against this evidence base. REPPARE’s findings will be open-access and all data and sources of data will be publicly available through a dedicated portal at the University of Leeds.

REPPARE’s intent is to facilitate rational and evidence-based approaches to pandemic and outbreak preparedness, enabling the health community, policy makers, and the public to make informed assessments, with an aim to develop good policy.


The REPPARE team is currently consulting with national governments and international organizations involved in pandemic preparedness and response.

Publications and outputs

The World Economic Forum and the Deus Ex Machina of Disease-X | International Health Policies featured article | January 2024

Rational Policy Over Panic: Re-evaluating Pandemic Risk within the Global Pandemic Prevention, Preparedness and Response Agenda | REPPARE report | February 2024

Rational Policy Over Panic: The evidence base of the pandemic preparedness agenda does not support the current urgency | REPPARE policy brief | February 2024

The Cost of Pandemic Preparedness: An Examination of Costings and the Financial Requests in Support of the Pandemic Prevention, Preparedness and Response Agenda | REPPARE report | May 2024

The Cost of Pandemic Preparedness: Unclear and unaffordable?| REPPARE policy brief | May 2024