Dr Or Brook
I am a Lecturer in Competition Law, specialising in international, EU, and comparative competition law and regulation, and empirical legal research (systematic content analysis of legal text), and a member of the Centre for Business Law and Practice.
I hold a PhD from the Amsterdam Centre for European Law and Governance. My PhD dissertation is a quantitative and qualitative empirical study, examining the role of public policy and non-competition interests in the multi-level governance enforcement system of EU competition law. I hold an LLB in economics and in law from the Hebrew University (distinction) and an LLM from the University of Amsterdam in European Competition Law and Regulation (distinction). Before re-joining academia, I worked as an associate attorney dealing with commercial litigation.
I have written a monograph on the topic of public policy considerations (non-competition interests) in the enforcement of Article 101 TFEU (forthcoming with Cambridge University Press). The monograph is the first to empirically examine the role of non-competition interests (public policy) in the enforcement of the EU’s prohibition on anti-competitive agreements. Based on an original quantitative and qualitative database of over 3100 cases, it records all of the public enforcement actions of Article 101 TFEU taken by the Commission, EU Courts, and the national competition authorities and courts of five representative Member States (France, Germany, Hungary, the Netherlands, and the UK). The book does not only expose explicit tools in which non-competition interests played a role. It also sheds light on the “dark matter” of balancing, namely invisible forms of balancing triggered by the institutional and procedural setup of the competition enforcers. Moreover, it contributes to the empirical-legal study of various other aspects of EU competition law enforcement, such as its objectives, the more economic approach, decentralised enforcement, and the functioning and success of Regulation 1/2003.
I am currently editing a Research Handbook on Abuse of Dominance (forthcoming with Edward Elgar, together with Prof Pinar Akman and Dr. Konstantinos Stylianou). This edited collection offers a comprehensive and functional guide for exploring the competition law prohibition of abuse of a dominant position and monopolization.
In 2019, I have received funding from the UK’s Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC), Impact Acceleration Accounts, in support of knowledge exchange and engagement activities related to my Priority Setting Project. This project brings together academics from various disciplines and stakeholders from the European and British competition authorities to discuss and disseminate the findings of a novel empirical study systematically analysing the Competition authorities' priority-setting policies and practices. Through a wide array of impact activities – including a workshop, training seminars, policy report, and academic publications – it builds an important network to rethink the enforcement priorities and influences reform.
I am the co-PI in the project titled “Beyond ECN+ Directive – Empirical Study Mapping Judicial Review of National Competition Law Decisions”. This project undertakes a comprehensive empirical study, mapping out the judicial review of competition law agencies in the European Union and the UK, to study the autonomy and independence of the national competition authorities; the impact on the effectiveness and quality of decision-making the impact/contribution of ‘specialist’ courts v generalist courts; the contribution of the review courts to the development of competition law substantive rules; the scope for the protection of parties’ rights; and to examine any rule of law implications in the various jurisdictions.
I act as the director of the UK’s branch of the International Academic Society for Competition Law (ASCOLA). I am a fellow in the Amsterdam Center for Law and Economics (ACLE), as well as in Amsterdam Centre for European Law and Governance (ACELG). In addition, I was a visiting researcher at the Centre for Law, Economics and Society at University College London (UCL), the Centre for Competition Policy (CCP) at the University of East Anglia, and the Tilburg Law and Economics Centre (TILEC) at Tilburg University.
I am an associated fellow in the Michael Beverley Innovation Fellowship, aiming to build the innovation culture and develop the next generation of academic entrepreneurs at the University of Leeds. As part of this programme, I received funding to develop my Priority Setting Project.
I act as an external advisor on competition law for the Fair Trade Foundation.
- Faculty of Social Sciences Research & Innovation Committee, member
- Research Degrees Management Committee, School of Law, member
My research expertise includes EU, international, and comparative competition law. I am particularly interested in studying the boundaries of competition law and its interfaces with other forms of market regulation, and the manner in which procedural and institutional aspects of the enforcement inform the substantive scope of the law.
More generally, I am intent on exploring new areas and methods of quantitative and qualitative empirical legal research, especially the systematic content analysis of legal text.<h4>Research projects</h4> <p>Any research projects I'm currently working on will be listed below. Our list of all <a href="https://essl.leeds.ac.uk/dir/research-projects">research projects</a> allows you to view and search the full list of projects in the faculty.</p>
- Bachelor of Law, Hebrew University of Jerusalem
- Bachelor of Economics, Hebrew University of Jerusalem
- Masters in European Competition Law and Regulation, University of Amsterdam
- PhD in Law, University of Amsterdam
- Academic Society for Competition Law (ASCOLA)
- Israeli Bar Association
- Michael Beverley Innovation Fellowship, associated member
I teach European and international competition law, European Union law, the law and economics of business regulation, and quantitative research methods.
Research groups and institutes
- Centre for Business Law and Practice