When people talk about sexuality education, the mainstream discussion is still majorly focusing on the experiences of those European and American countries; and it usually refers to the scientific and systematic kinds of sexuality education. However, the existence of abstinence sexuality education, to a certain extent, indicates that not every type of sexuality education is scientific and systematic. Therefore, it is particularly significant to understand youth’s everyday sexuality education experience and to see what kinds of sexuality education they can receive.
In my research project, by critically rethinking sexuality education, I have re-defined sexuality education in China. I have also named it to be the input as well as the output of China’s societal, political, cultural, and historical construction.
It is impossible to ignore that in recent decades, with the implementation of the Opening-Up policy which was first introduced in 1978, China’s society has experienced numerous changes, youth’s sexuality identity, practice and relationship have also got many opportunities and challenges. The imbalanced development about this issue thus becomes one of the motivations behind this research.
Studies show that it is crucial to listen to the youth’s voices to understand their experiences. At the same time, few studies have investigated the intersection of sexuality education and social stratification. Moreover, previous youth studies in China rarely pay attention to vocational school students – as an outcome of class stratification in China’s high school education system.
Therefore, for making the unheard be heard, from March to September 2019, I conducted my six-month fieldwork at a vocational high school and an academic high school, interviewed both student and schoolteacher participants to understand Chinese youth’s sexuality education experience and to see how class and gender impact their sexuality identity, practice, and relationships.
Education and Qualification:
Associate Fellow, Higher Education Academy (issued on June 4 2020, reference number: PR185392)
Doctor of Philosophy, Sociology and Social Policy, University of Leeds, United Kingdom (2017 to date)
Master of Arts, Social Research (Education), University of Birmingham, United Kingdom (2015-2016)
Bachelor of Management Studies, Electronic Commerce, Jilin University of Finance and Economics, China (2011-2015)
Training and Certificates:
International Women's Health and Human Rights, Stanford University (Coursera). September, 2022.
Climate Change International Legal Regime, InforMEA, the United Nations Information Portal on Multilateral Environmental Agreements. July, 2022.
Specialized Module on Children and Climate Change, UN CC:Learn. July 2022.
Project Management Essentials Certified (PMEC), Management & Strategy Institute. July, 2022.
Programming for Everybody (Getting Started with Python), University of Michigan (Coursera). August, 2021.
Uni Seed Course Completion, 简单心理MyTherapist. December, 2020.
Psychological Counselling for LGBT+ Clients, Beijing LGBT Center. May, 2020.
Social Media Editor, Wiley (serving the journal Children & Society)
Trainee Trustee, TLC: Talk, Listen, Change (January 2023 – )
Journal Reviewer, Global Studies of Childhood (peer-reviewed); Sex Education: Sexuality, Society and Learning (peer-reviewed); Children & Society (peer-reviewed); Sage Open (peer-reviewed).
Committee member in Youth Sexual Health Education, China Sexology Association (2021-2022)
Volunteer with expertise in sexuality education in China, UNFPA China
- I provided Dr Elizabeth Schroeder with the insight of youth, sexuality education and cultural sensitivity in China for developing a sexuality education programme for Chinese university students.
Course Design Consultant, Xi’an Guangyuan Sex Education Support Charity Centre – A sexuality education provider co-developed by Marie Stopes International China and UNFPA China.
- I led a project to develop a video-based sexuality education curriculum for children and youth in China by using AMAZE videos. This project is supported by UNESCO.
- I assisted to design the self-learning sexuality education curriculum and localise the sexuality education videos developed by AMAZE.org. This project is supported by UNESCO.
- I optimised the teaching materials of the live streaming sexuality education programme.
Sexuality Education Tutor, Xi’an Guangyuan Sex Education Support Charity Centre
- I taught the live streaming sexuality education classes to over 23,000 primary school, middle school, and high school students in China.
- I provided training sessions to other front line teachers.
Project Founding Member and coordinator, “Everything Can Be Related to Sexuality Education 万物皆可性教育”, Xi’an Guangyuan Sex Education Support Charity Centre
- I proposed a project targeting the public to raise the awareness of sexuality education by using live-streaming platforms. The project now has been running successfully and got funds. The project was also shortlisted for the Hub Innovation Award 2022 jointly hosted by RNW Media and UNESCO.
- I named the series according to my research standpoint – “Everything Can Be Related to Sexuality Education 万物皆可性教育”. So far we have done episodes about dating apps, marriage and relationship, contraception, sexuality education and parenting, as well as menstruation.
Online Sexual Health Advisor, Ababy (APP)
Volunteer Teacher, Shi Wu Xue Tang (实务学堂) - A middle/high school level privately-run school for internal migrant children in China.
- Introduction to Sociology, Summer School, 2019.
- Feminism Reading Group, Semester 1, 2020-2021 Academic Year.
- Social Class Reading Group, Semester 2, 2020-2021 Academic Year.
Liu, C. and Zhu, Y. 2023. Chinese young people’s diverse experiences with heterosexual romantic relationships in various high school contexts. Global Studies of Childhood. https://doi.org/10.1177/20436106231178010 (Research Article)
Liu, C. 2022. Secondary Education and Class Stratification: Understanding the Hierarchy of Sexuality Education in a Chinese Vocational High School. Children. https://doi.org/10.3390/children9101524 (Research Article)
Liu, C. 2022. Embodying Middle Class Gender Aspirations: Perspectives from China’s Privileged Young Women, By Kailing Xie. Gender & Society. https://doi.org/10.1177/08912432221103132 (Book Review)
Yan, Z., Liu, C., and Elley, S. 2021. Relationships with Opposite-Gender Peers: the ‘fine line’ between an acceptable and unacceptable ‘liking’ amongst children in a Chinese rural primary school. Children’s Geographies. https://doi.org/10.1080/14733285.2021.1970717 (Research Article)
Liu, C. 2018. Handbook on Class and Social Stratification in China, By Yingjie Guo. Political Studies Review. 16(1), pp. 99. https://doi.org/10.1177/1478929917724382 (Book Review)
Liu, C. 2022. What’s the Right Way to Teach Rural Kids About Sex? July 4. Sixth Tone. https://www.sixthtone.com/news/1010608/whats-the-right-way-to-teach-rural-kids-about-sex%3F (Commentary)
Liu, C. 2022. What Is Success? Urban Middle Class Women’s Confusion and Struggle. April 27. MsMuses 缪斯夫人. https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/fhF9NQGgLys_V7l1mDZteg (In Chinese) (Book Review)
Liu, C., and Ding, R. 2022. *NSFW* S02 Episode 7: Horny on Mainland. Chaoyang Trap. https://chaoyang.substack.com/p/porn-in-the-prc?s=r (Online Magazine)
Liu, C. 2021. Teaching Sexuality Education as A Sociologist. January 21. You&Me 你我伙伴. https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/4wzIt9i0Zk-VBeV7m7AK5A(In Chinese) (Blog Article)
Liu, C. 2021. Teaching Sexuality Education in China – Reflection by a Sociologist. January 7. Northern Notes. https://northernnotes.leeds.ac.uk/teaching-sexuality-education-in-china-reflection-by-a-sociologist/(Blog Article)
Lecture – Semester 1 2018/2019 Academic Year: SLSP1170 Understanding and Researching Contemporary Society (one lecture on social class in contemporary society) (Undergraduate Module, School of Sociology and Social Policy)
Guest Lecture – Semester 2 2019/2020 Academic Year: EDUC5867 Children’s Family and Personal Relationships. (MA Childhood Studies, School of Education)
Guest Lecture – Semester 1 2020/2021 Academic Year: EDUC2004 Research Methods. (Undergraduate Module, School of Education)
Workshop – Semester 2 2021/2022 Academic Year: SLSP 2010 Sociology and Social Policy Research Methods ((taking 4 x one-hour SPSS workshops per week) (Undergraduate Module, School of Sociology and Social Policy)
Tutorial - Semester 1 2018/2019 Academic Year: SLSP1170 Understanding and Researching Contemporary Society (taking 2 x two-hour tutorials per week, and marking research proposals) (Undergraduate Module, School of Sociology and Social Policy)
Tutorial (ad hoc) - Semester 1 2018/2019 Academic Year: SLSP1190 Identities, Inequalities and Policy in Contemporary Society (Undergraduate Module, School of Sociology and Social Policy)
Tutorial - Semester 1 2019/2020 Academic Year: SLSP1190 Identities, Inequalities and Policy in Contemporary Society (taking 4 x one-hour tutorials per week, and marking exams) (Undergraduate Module, School of Sociology and Social Policy)
I am quoted in the meeting report of “Switched on: sexuality education in the digital space” the International Symposium conducted on 19 - 21 February 2020 in Istanbul, Turkey. View more information on the UNESCO webpage.
As one of the contributors, I advised Marie Stopes International China (MSIC) on the Guideline for Fundamental Sexuality Education (2019).《玛丽斯特普基础性教育指南（2019）》This guideline is the first localised Comprehensive Sexuality Education (CSE) guideline in China. View more information on the Marie Stopes China webpage (In Chinese).
I was invited by KnowDeaf to popularise sexuality health knowledge to women with hearing loss and deafness through live transcribing, for celebrating the International Women’s Day 2020, on March 7, 2020.
China Tonight @ABCNews (Australian Broadcasting Corporation). Video Interview. July 27 2022. What's the quality of sex education in China?
Het Financieele Dagblad (Dutch Financial Daily). Interview. July 18 2022. MeToo in China: jonge Chinezen leren iets over seks, maar niets over liefde en relaties. (In Dutch)
Forest&Trees 见树又见林. Talk Show. January 29 2022. Intimacy and Gaslighting. (In Chinese)
VaginaProject 阴道说计划. Interview. March 18 2021. WoMen’s Voice: Receiving Sexuality Education is the Most Fundamental Human Right. (In Chinese)
Beijing Youth Daily 北京青年报. Interview. March 9 2021. After Receiving the Invitation to Wedding from a 5thYear Primary School Girl. (In Chinese)
OutCity 城市. Interview. January 25 2021. Teaching Sexuality to the Pass Line. (In Chinese)
Lifeweek 三联生活周刊. Class Observation. December 6 2020. Where did the Rural Youth Go after They Dropped out of School in their Teens? (In Chinese)
South China Morning Post. Interview. November 11 2020. ‘China Has a National Sexual Illiteracy’: The Challenges in the Way of Developing Sex Education in the Country.
Inkstone. November 5 2020. Interview. China’s Mandatory Sex Ed Classes are First Step on a Long Road.
Reuters. October 26 2020. Interview. Revised Chinese law sparks debate on sexuality education.
LoveMatters China. October 19 2020. Interview. Sexuality Education Has Finally been Written into the Law of the People's Republic of China on the Protection of Minors. But is It Enough? (In Chinese).
Imaginist 理想国. May 31 2020. Podcast. Can Independent Women Make Traditional Choices? (In Chinese).
Inkstone. May 19 2020. Interview. Alleged Sexual Abuse of Teen Girl Prompts Calls to Raise Age of Consent.
Academic Bird 学术啾. May 16 2020. Talk Show. Sexuality Education and Love in China (In Chinese).
Academic Bird 学术啾. April 26 2020. Talk Show. Sexuality Education and Sexual Harassment in China (In Chinese).
You&Me 你我伙伴. December 24 2019. Class Observation. Introduction of the Live Steaming Sexuality Education Programme (both English and Chinese subtitles are available).
Liu, C. 2023. Oral Presenter (confirmed). Teaching Sexuality Education in China - Reflection by a Sociologist. BSA Annual Conference 2023. British Sociological Association. April 12. Manchester, United Kingdom.
Liu, C. 2023. Invited Speaker. Doing Sexuality Education in China: Through the Gendered Lens. Teacher Education for Sustainable Development and Children’s Rights in Primary Schools Workshops Series. University of Nottingham and Beijing Normal University. February 8. Online.
Liu, C. 2023. Invited Speaker. Secondary Education and Class Stratification: Understanding the Hierarchy of Sexuality Education in a Chinese Vocational High School. Children Webinar | Development of Sexuality Education in China (Part of the Children Webinar series). Children 2023 Webinars. Children MDPI. January 10. Online.
Liu, C. 2022. Invited Speaker. “It Looked So Attractive, and I Couldn’t Resist”: Porn-Watching Experiences Amongst Chinese Youth. MCI Early Career Researcher Workshop. Manchester China Institute, University of Manchester. April 28. Online.
Liu, C. 2022. Oral Presenter. The youth understanding of marriage, family and birth-giving in China. BSA Annual Conference 2022. British Sociological Association. April 20. Online.
Liu, C. 2021. Oral Presenter. “Pornography Is Poison”, or Maybe Not?: The Youth Porn-Watching Experiences and Social Transformation in Contemporary China”. BACS Conference 2021. British Association for Chinese Studies. September 6. Online.
Liu, C. 2021. Invited Speaker. Using Video-Based Curriculum to impart Sexuality Education to Children and Youth in China. AMAZE Asian Region Webinar Series. UNESCO, UNFPA, IPPF & Advocates for Youth. July 22. Online.
Liu, C. 2021. Oral Presenter. School Types and Institutional Stratification: The Youth Experiences with Sexuality Education through Schooling in China. BSA Annual Conference 2021. British Sociological Association. April 15. Online.
Mao, J., and Liu, C. 2021. Co-Author and Oral Presenter. Researching Sensitive Topics with Working Class Youth in Urban China: Reflections on Social Distances in Doing Fieldwork. BSA Annual Conference 2021. British Sociological Association. April 15. Online.
Liu, C. 2021. Invited Speaker. From the Ivory Tower to the Practical Field: An Observation Done by a Sociologist. What Can Youth Do to Reform Sexuality Education? China Youth Network. April 2. Online.
Liu, C. 2020. Oral Presenter. Driven Expectation and Sexuality Education: Understanding the Youth Experience and Dilemma through Schooling in China. School Research Seminar Series in the School of Sociology and Social Policy, University of Leeds. November 18, Leeds, United Kingdom. Live-streaming to the public.
Liu, C. 2020. Invited Speaker. The Communication Opportunities of Sexuality Education through Family Communication. Sexuality Education Online Seminar Series: Youth Experiences with Family Communication. UNFPA China and You&Me. September 12. Live-streaming to the public.
Liu, C. 2020. Invited Speaker. The Development of Sexuality Education in Digital Space. The International Women’s Day Sexuality Education Special Series. You&Me. March 6. Live-streaming to the public.
Liu, C. 2020. Invited Speaker. Back to school: Participate in a live-streamed CSE class and experience other digital tools for CSE (featured). Switched On: Sexuality education in the digital space. UNESCO and UNFPA. February 21, Istanbul, Turkey.
Liu, C. 2020. Invited Speaker. Back to school: Digital tools to deliver sexuality education in the classroom. Switched On: Sexuality education in the digital space. UNESCO and UNFPA. February 20, Istanbul, Turkey.
Liu, C. 2020. Oral Presenter. Class, gender, and youth’s sexuality education experience in contemporary China. BSA Annual Conference 2020. British Sociological Association. April 21, Birmingham, United Kingdom. (Abstract accepted, but conference cancelled due to the coronavirus situation.)
Liu, C. 2020. Oral Presenter. School Matters: Social Class and the Youth Sexuality Education Experience in Contemporary China. School Research Seminar Series in the School of Sociology and Social Policy, University of Leeds. March 18, Leeds, United Kingdom. (Abstract accepted, but seminar cancelled due to the coronavirus situation.)
Huang, Q., and Liu, C. 2019. Co-Author. Abstinence Bar: Understanding Chinese Youth’s Sexual Abstinence through Online Community. BSA Annual Conference 2019. British Sociological Association. April 25. Glasgow, United Kingdom.
- Social Stratification (Class, Gender, Sexuality)
- Comprehensive/Holistic/Abstinent Sexuality Education
- Sexual Health, Contraception and STDs
- Working Class: Taxi Drivers, and Vocational School Students
- Educational Inequality
- Ideology, Propaganda, and Their Impacts on People's Everyday Lives
- Nationalism and Collectivism
- China's Contemporary History (1949- )
- (Post-)Socialist Femininity and Masculinity (with Chinese Characteristics)
- Parenting in China
- Online Dating Apps